Metformin is known to stimulate glucose uptake, but the mechanism for this action is not fully understood. In this study, AMPK activators (AICAR and metformin) increased the expression of T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein-1 (Tiam-1), a Rac1 specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Metformin increases the serine-phosphorylation of Tiam-1 by AMPK and induces interaction between Tiam-1 and 14-3-3. Pharmacologic inhibition of AMPK blocks this interaction, indicating that 14-3-3 may be required for induction of Tiam-1 by AMPK. Metformin also increases the phosphorylation of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a direct downstream target of Rac1, dependent on AMPK. Tiam-1 is down-regulated at high glucose concentrations in cultured cells and in the db/db mouse model of hyperglycemia. Furthermore, Tiam-1 knock-down blocked metformin-induced increase in glucose uptake. These findings suggest that metformin promotes cellular glucose uptake in part through Tiam-1 induction.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 2013 Dec|
- Glucose uptake
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology