The tissue distribution and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) depend on their physical and chemical properties both in the manufactured condition and within the biological system. We characterized three types of commercially available aluminum-based NPs (Al-NPs), two rod-type aluminum oxide NPs (Al 2 O 3 , AlONPs), with different aspect ratios (short [S]- and long [L]-AlONPs), and spherical aluminum cerium oxide NPs (AlCeO 3 , AlCeONPs). The surface area was in order of the S-AlONPs > L-AlONPs > AlCeONPs. Very importantly, we found that AlCeONPs is Al 2 O 3 -coated CeO 2 NPs, but not AlCeO 3 NPs, and that the Al level in AlCeONPs is approximately 20% of those in S- and L-AlONPs. All three types of Al-NPs were slightly ionized in gastric fluid and rapidly particlized in the intestinal fluid. There were no significant differences in the body weight gain following 28 days of repeated oral administration of the three different types of Al-NPs. All Al-NPs elevated Al level in the heart, spleen, kidney and blood at 24 hours after the final dose, accompanied by the altered tissue level of redox reaction-related trace elements. Subsequently, in four types of cells derived from the organs which Al-NPs are accumulated, H9C2 (heart), HEK-293 (kidney), splenocytes and RAW264.7 (blood), S-AlONPs showed a very low uptake level and did not exert significant cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity and uptake level were the most remarkable in cells treated with AlCeONPs. In conclusion, we suggest that the physicochemical properties of NPs should be examined in detail before the release into the market to prevent unexpected adverse health effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program, through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2011‐35B‐E00011). This study was also supported by the R&D Center for Valuable Recycling (Global‐Top R&BD Program) of the Ministry of Environment (project no. R2‐17_2016002250005).
R&D Center for Valuable Recycling (Global‐ Top R&BD Program) of the Ministry of Environment, Grant/Award Number: Project No.: R2‐17_2016002250005; National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Grant/ Award Number: 2011‐35B‐E00011
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- aluminum oxide nanoparticles
- cerium oxide nanoparticles
- physicochemical properties
- tissue distribution
ASJC Scopus subject areas