Toilets for education: Evidence from Kenya's primary school-level data

Hyoungjong Kim, Dong Eun Rhee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This study empirically examines the effects of school toilet provision on the primary-school attendance rate in Kenya. Using over 4200 school-level observations between 2013 and 2015, the results consistently show that an increase in the school toilet availability per student significantly raises the primary school attendance rate among both boys and girls. Moreover, the effects are larger for girls than for boys, and especially for pubescent girls. The results suggest that the provision of school toilets is critical to reduce the gender education gap in developing countries, as well as to improve overall school attendance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102090
JournalInternational Journal of Educational Development
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by a Korea University Grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd


  • Education
  • Education inequality
  • Gender inequality
  • Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Development
  • Sociology and Political Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Toilets for education: Evidence from Kenya's primary school-level data'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this