We have investigated topological confinement effects of electron-electron interactions on gapless edge states in zigzag-edge bilayer graphene nanoribbons under a voltage bias between the layers by using a tight-binding model with on-site Coulomb interactions. Spin-dependent potentials at the four edge sites resulting from the electron-electron interactions not only determine the spin configurations but also can result in topological confinement effects. In the magnetic phases with interlayer antiferromagnetic spin configurations, the edge potentials do not produce gapless edge states, and only gapless edge states can exist due to the edge shape. In the magnetic phases with interlayer ferromagnetic spin configurations, various gapless edge states due to the edge potential and edge shape are produced. Gapless edge states corresponding to the quantum spin-valley Hall phase and the layered antiferromagnetic phase can be described by topological confinement effects alone. The half-metallic quantum valley Hall phase can be described by topological confinement effects at inequivalent edge sites.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Projects No. 2016R1D1A1A09917003, No. 2016R1D1A1B03931144, and No. 2015M1A7A1A01002234). K.W.L. gratefully acknowledges a Korea University research grant.
© 2018 American Physical Society.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics