Total SO2 levels and risk assessment of wine and fruit wine consumed in South Korea

Yong Soo Cho, Jeong Jae Kim, Gyungyun Jeon, Myung Sub Chung, Yongsung Joo, Kwang Won Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


This study was conducted to determine the levels of total sulfur dioxide (SO2) in various fruit wines distributed across South Korea and to conduct risk assessment for SO2 exposure through wines. A total of 316 wines were analyzed in 2017, and the daily intake of wine was obtained from raw data provided in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2016. In order to conduct risk assessments, we used a stochastic approach using the Monte Carlo method and presented the results in three scenarios to resolve uncertainty about SO2 non-detected (ND) data: the lower-bound scenario, which considers data below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to be 0 mg kg−1, the ½ LOQ scenario, which considers data below the LOQ as half of LOQ, and the upper-bound scenario, which considers data below the LOQ as LOQ value. During the monitoring of 316 wines, the detection range of total SO2 varied from ND to 340.06 mg kg−1, and there were no products exceeding 350 mg kg−1 total SO2, which is the regulated level in South Korea. Risk assessment revealed that most South Koreans were ingesting a safe level of SO2 through wine in terms of the acceptable daily intake (ADI, 0–0.7 mg kg−1 body weight day−1). Similar to the results of studies undertaken in other countries, only a limited percentage of South Korean individuals intake SO2 at a reasonably high amount. The regular monitoring of high levels of SO2 in wine should be a national concern, although this percentage is minimal, and we recommend that the standard be reset as appropriate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108124
JournalFood Control
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant ( 17162MFDS011 ) from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • Fruit wine
  • Manufacturing process
  • Sulfite
  • Sulfur dioxide
  • Wine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science


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