Toxicogenomic analysis of the pulmonary toxic effects of hexanal in F344 rat

Yoon Cho, Jung Hee Lim, Mi Kyung Song, Seung Chan Jeong, Kyuhong Lee, Yongju Heo, Tae Sung Kim, Jae Chun Ryu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Hexanal is a major component of indoor air pollutants and is a kind of aldehydes; it has adverse effects on human health. We performed an in vivo inhalation study and transcriptomic analysis to determine the mode of toxic actions in response to hexanal. Fischer 344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to hexanal aerosol for 4 h day−1, 5 days week−1 for 4 weeks at 0, 600, 1000, and 1500 ppm. Throughout our microarray-based genome-wide expression analysis, we identified 56 differentially expressed genes in three doses of hexanal; among these genes, 11 genes showed dose-dependent expression patterns (10 downregulated and 1 upregulated, 1.5-fold, p < 0.05). Through a comparative toxicogenomics database (CTD) analysis of 11 genes, we determined that five genes (CCL12, DDIT4, KLF2, CEBPD, and ADH6) are linked to diverse disease categories such as cancer, respiratory tract disease, and immune system disease. These diseases were previously known for being induced by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Our data demonstrated that the hexanal-induced dose-dependent altered genes could be valuable quantitative biomarkers to predict hexanal exposure and to perform relative risk assessments, including pulmonary toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-396
Number of pages15
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


  • aldehyde
  • environmental genomics
  • hexanal
  • indoor air pollutant
  • respiratory system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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