We developed and analyzed a new surrogate endpoint of the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) for developmental neurotoxicity. To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and transferability of the new endpoint, a pre-validation team from three independent laboratories optimized and standardized the protocol for neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) by measuring the neuronal differentiation rates of mESCs under different culture conditions, such as the presence or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the growth media and varying lengths of culture. In addition, a component ratio of neuronal cells was measured by using flow cytometry analysis of β-III tubulin (Tuj1)-positive cells and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) mRNA. Our results showed that the best growth was achieved by culturing mESCs for 12 d in N2B27 medium without bFGF or ascorbic acid. Lead (II) acetate and aroclor 1254 were used to test the usefulness of the new endpoint. When we used the known ID50 values for lead (II) acetate in the EST model, it was classified as non-embryotoxic; however, when we used the new ID50 values that we determined in this study, it was classified as weakly embryotoxic. Aroclor 1254 and penicillin G were also classified as weakly embryotoxic and non-embryotoxic compounds, respectively, when cardiac and neuronal differentiation ID50 values were used. Therefore, our new surrogate endpoint for developmental neurotoxicity is not only sensitive and specific but also transferable among laboratories.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by grants (Nos. 08171KFDA514 and 08172KFDA516) from the Korea Food and Drug Administration.
- Aroclor 1254
- Developmental neurotoxicity
- Embryonic stem cell test
- In vitro toxicity test
- Lead (II) acetate
- Mouse embryonic stem cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis