TRIAD method to assess ecological risks of contaminated soils in abandoned mine sites

Dokyung Kim, Jin Il Kwak, Tae Yang Lee, Lia Kim, Haemi Kim, Sun Hwa Nam, Wonjae Hwang, June Wee, Yong Ho Lee, Songhee Kim, Ji In Kim, Sunhee Hong, Seunghun Hyun, Seung Woo Jeong, Youn Joo An

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Site-specific soil ecological risk assessment is important for protecting soil ecosystems because it reflects the environmental factors at the site to detect ecological risks and develop risk management measures. This study assessed the ecological risks from chemical pollutants in abandoned mine sites using the TRIAD approach, evaluating its overall applicability, including the tiered system of assessment. A site-specific soil ecological risk assessment was conducted for five abandoned mine sites (Sites 1–4 and R, the reference site); integrated risks (IRs) for each site were calculated. Our results of the Tier 2 assessment showed that IRs at Sites 1–4 were 0.701, 0.758, 0.840, and 0.429, respectively. The IR classification was moderate, high, high, and low risk, in that order for Sites 1–4, the same as that for Tier 1. The IR had more varied analyses, emphasizing the significance of conducting higher tiered analyses under TRIAD while maintaining a balance between soil ecosystem protection and socioeconomic costs. Multiple analyses reduced the uncertainty of IR, thus enabling efficient risk management decision-making to protect soil ecosystems. Our study provides a basis for using the TRIAD for soil assessment and establishing policies for site-specific soil ecological risk assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number132535
JournalJournal of hazardous materials
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan 5

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.


  • Chemical line of evidence
  • Ecological line of evidence
  • Ecological risk assessment
  • Ecotoxicological line of evidence
  • Pollutants
  • Soil ecosystem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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