Unpaved road characterization during rainfall scenario: Electromagnetic wave and cone penetration assessment

Seonghun Kang, Jong Sub Lee, Geunwoo Park, Namsun Kim, Junghee Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aims to examine the effect of rainfall on integrity assessment on unpaved roads using electromagnetic waves and cone penetration. An unpaved road testbed is prepared with sandy soil in densely- and loosely-packed conditions. Site investigations using a time domain reflectometry (TDR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) are performed on the testbed under before and after rainfall scenarios, and an additional laboratory compaction test using the soil samples is conducted. The results show that the spatially scaled GPR signal converted by the TDR signal can accurately estimate the interface depth. In addition, rainfall may reduce the accuracy of GPR signal polarity-based analyses for anomaly detection on unpaved roads. This study reveals that TDR, GPR, and DCP with simple laboratory compaction tests and physics-inspired effective stress-depth models can be a powerful tool for underground mapping when subjected to rainfall season.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102930
JournalNDT and E International
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government (Project Number: 22UGCPB157945-03 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Dynamic cone penetrometer
  • Ground penetrating radar
  • Rainfall scenario
  • Time domain reflectometry
  • Unpaved road

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Unpaved road characterization during rainfall scenario: Electromagnetic wave and cone penetration assessment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this