Upcycling spent cathodes into single-crystalline Ni-rich cathode materials through selective lithium extraction

Kyoung Sun Kim, Min Ku Jeon, Seok Hyun Song, Seokjae Hong, Hwa Soo Kim, Sung Wook Kim, Jinsoo Kim, Pilgun Oh, Junhyeok Hwang, Jinju Song, Jiyoung Ma, Jung Je Woo, Seung Ho Yu, Hyungsub Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Direct recycling has been considered the most promising method of recycling spent batteries because of its eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. However, the uneven distribution of elements and particle sizes in spent cathode materials, caused by different states of health, presents a challenge for direct recycling. In this study, we employed a pre-treatment process using chlorination to selectively extract residual lithium and enhance the uniformity of the particle sizes in a spent LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode. Furthermore, a multi-step aging process was designed to increase the primary particle size and minimize impurity formation, resulting in the successful synthesis of upcycled single-crystalline LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811). The bimodal electrode, which contained both upcycled single-crystalline and commercially available polycrystalline NCM811, exhibited a large discharge capacity of 191.3 mA h g−1 at 0.2C and maintained a stable cycle performance of 84.1% after 300 cycles at 1C. Our study highlights the use of selective lithium extraction in the regeneration process, enabling the homogenization of the element distribution and particle size in spent cathode materials as well as the effective utilization of upcycled single-crystalline cathode materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21222-21230
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Sept 21

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Upcycling spent cathodes into single-crystalline Ni-rich cathode materials through selective lithium extraction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this