Upper torso and pelvis linear velocity during the downswing of elite golfers

Seung Hui Beak, Ahnryul Choi, Seung Wook Choi, Seung Eel Oh, Joung Hwan Mun, Heegoo Yang, Taeyong Sim, Hae Ryong Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Background: During a golf swing, analysis of the movement in upper torso and pelvis is a key step to determine a motion control strategy for accurate and consistent shots. However, a majority of previous studies that have evaluated this movement limited their analysis only to the rotational movement of segments, and translational motions were not examined. Therefore, in this study, correlations between translational motions in the 3 axes, which occur between the upper torso and pelvis, were also examined.Methods: The experiments were carried out with 14 male pro-golfers (age: 29 ± 8 years, career: 8.2 ± 4.8years) who registered in the Korea Professional Golf Association (KPGA). Six infrared cameras (VICON; Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) and SB-Clinc software (SWINGBANK Ltd, Korea) were used to collect optical marker trajectories. The center of mass (CoM) of each segment was calculated based on kinematic principal. In addition, peak value of CoM velocity and the time that each peak occurred in each segment during downswing was calculated. Also, using cross-correlation analysis, the degree of coupling and time lags of peak values occurred between and within segments (pelvis and upper torso) were investigated.Results: As a result, a high coupling strength between upper torso and pelvis with an average correlation coefficient = 0.86 was observed, and the coupling between segments was higher than that within segments (correlation coefficient = 0.81 and 0.77, respectively).Conclusions: Such a high coupling at the upper torso and pelvis can be used to reduce the degree of motion control in the central nervous system and maintain consistent patterns in the movement. The result of this study provides important information for the development of optimal golf swing movement control strategies in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
JournalBioMedical Engineering Online
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb 11

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a grant of the Korea University and Korea Healthcare technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (A110416).


  • Coupling
  • Cross-correlation
  • Downswing
  • Golf
  • Linear velocity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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