Urinary bisphenol concentrations and its association with metabolic disorders in the US and Korean populations

Ji Yoon Choi, Jiyun Lee, Da An Huh, Kyong Whan Moon

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a representative endocrine disrupting compound used in a vast array of consumer products, and are being frequently substituted by its analogues, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF). We aimed to examine the association between urinary bisphenol levels with obesity and lipid profiles in the general population to comprehensively evaluate its potential of metabolic disturbance. A representative sample of 1046 US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2016) and 3268 Korean adults from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2015–2017) was analyzed. We examined the exposure levels of bisphenols and determined their associations with obesity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels, and hypercholesterolemia prevalence through multiple linear, and binary/ordinal logistic regression models. In both populations, high BPA levels (lowest tertile vs. 2nd, 3rd tertiles) showed corresponding associations with lipid profile and obesity. BPA levels were associated with decreased HDL-C levels (Q3: β = −0.053, p = 0.08 (US); Q2: β = −0.030, p-0.03), increased TG levels (Q3: β = 0.121, p = 0.029 (US); Q3: β = 0.089, p = 0.021, and higher odds for obesity (Q3: OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.35 (US); Q3: OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.78). Higher BPS levels were positively associated with obesity status, especially in US men (Q2: OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.96) and Korean women (Q3: OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.64). A significant decrease in HDL-C (Q3: β = −0.088, p = 0.01) and elevated odds for obesity at higher BPF levels (Q3: OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.56) was observed in US women. The findings of our study indicate that BPA and its analogues, BPS and BPF, are associated with lipid metabolism disorders in addition to obesity in adults. Given the increase in exposure to BPA alternatives, continuous biomonitoring, and further investigation of their health effects through prospective cohort studies are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118679
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 15

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd


  • Bisphenol A
  • Bisphenol F
  • Bisphenol S
  • KoNEHS
  • Metabolic disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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