User-Number Threshold-Based Small-Cell On/Off Control Scheme: Performance Evaluation and Optimization

Jin Woong Park, Do Sik Yoo, Seong Jun Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we study the energy efficiency of small-cell on/off control schemes in which small-cells turn on when the number of active users reaches a certain threshold value called on-threshold. In particular, we derive analytical formulas for various performance metrics such as expected small-cell power consumption, average consumed energy per transmitted bit, expected energy saving, and energy saving probability. Moreover, we show that the expected small-cell power consumption strictly decreases with increased on-threshold value and derive a mathematical expression for the optimal on-threshold value that minimizes the average consumed energy per transmitted bit. With simulation results, we not only verify the validity of the analytical results but also discuss how the theoretical results can be used in system performance evaluation and optimization. We believe that many of the results in this paper can be used in practical small-cell network design and operation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8866747
Pages (from-to)367-379
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received December 27, 2018; revised May 24, 2019 and July 31, 2019; accepted September 29, 2019. Date of publication October 11, 2019; date of current version January 8, 2020. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018R1D1A1B07045719, NRF-2019R1F1A1062036). The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was S. Mukherjee. (Corresponding author: Do-Sik Yoo.) J. W. Park is with the Department of Computer and Radio Communications, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea (e-mail:

Publisher Copyright:
© 2002-2012 IEEE.


  • Small cell
  • energy saving
  • on threshold
  • on/off control
  • sleep mode control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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