Utilization of germinated brown rice (GBR) in sugar-snap cookies and effect of heat-moisture treatment of the GBR were investigated. Brown rice was germinated at 30°C for 48h and then a heat-moisture treatment was conducted for the moistened GBR (17g/100g moisture content) at 100°C for 4h. Sugar-snap cookies were prepared with white rice, brown rice, GBR and the treated GBR flours, as substitutes for wheat flour (30-100g/100g). All cookies containing rice flours, regardless of germination and heat-moisture treatment, required significantly less force to compress than did the wheat flour cookie, and this softening effect was increased as the level of rice flour substitution increased. The cookies made with the GBR flour displayed inferior physical characteristics compared to those with wheat flour, but the cookies containing the treated GBR flour showed improved physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those containing untreated GBR flour. The cookies containing the treated GBR flours showed relatively a low degree of firming during the ambient storage. The overall results showed that the cookies with acceptable quality and improved nutrition could be prepared by partial or complete replacement of wheat flour with the heat-moisture treated GBR flour.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by iPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, under grant no: 610009-03-2-WT241 ), Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea.
- Germinated brown rice
- Heat-moisture treatment
- Physical properties
- Sugar-snap cookies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science