Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil

Yubo Yan, Fangjie Qi, Seshadri Balaji, Yilu Xu, Jiexi Hou, Yong Sik Ok, Xiaoli Dong, Qiao Li, Xiuyun Sun, Lianjun Wang, Nanthi Bolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-323
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd


  • Alkaline residue
  • Bioavailability
  • Pb immobilization
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Shooting range soil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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