Validation of FRIEND and ACSM equations for cardiorespiratory fitness: Comparison to direct measurement in CAD patients

Won Young Jang, Dong Oh Kang, Yoonjee Park, Jieun Lee, Woohyeun Kim, Jah Yeon Choi, Seung Young Roh, Yuna Jang, Se Hyun Park, Woo Sub Kim, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Seung Woon Rha, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Eung Ju Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The regression equation of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) was a preferred method for estimating maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Recently, a more precise equation from the fitness registry and the importance of exercise national database (FRIEND) for healthy people was developed. This study compared VO2max estimated by the ACSM and FRIEND equations to VO2max directly measured in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Overall, 293 CAD patients who participated in cardiac rehabilitation between June 2015 and December 2018 were analyzed. Directly measured VO2max values were compared to the ACSM and FRIEND equations. The directly measured VO2max was significantly different from the estimated VO2max by ACSM equation (24.16 vs. 28.7 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001), which was overestimated by 20% in men and 16% in women. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the directly measured VO2max and the estimated VO2max by the FRIEND equation. (24.16 vs. 24.15 mL/kg/min, p = 0.986). In CAD patients, the estimated VO2max from the ACSM equation was significantly higher than the directly measured VO2max. In addition, estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by the FRIEND equation showed similar results with directly measured CRF. As a result, the FRIEND equation can predict CRF more accurately than the ACSM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1889
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 2

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Validation studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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