Analytical technologies for polymeric membranes, including positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), were employed to understand the origin and harmful effects of thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane compaction. Although no variation in water flux exceeding 10% from the initial flux was observed under all compaction pressures, the hydraulic pressure induced by the high-pressure pump caused a rapid contraction of the free volume and thickness of the TFC RO membrane. In particular, due to the viscoelastic polymer properties of the active layer, a reduction of approximately 15% free volume and 48% thickness was observed at a compaction pressure of 60 bar. Consequently, the analytical procedures can provide a better understanding of membrane compaction during pressurized membrane processes and strategic development to reduce the harmful effects of membrane compaction.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) through Industrial Facilities & Infrastructure Research Program, funded by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) ( 146834 and 1485017292 ).
- Free volume
- Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)
- Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane compaction
- Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Science(all)
- Water Science and Technology
- Mechanical Engineering