Verification and optimization of an ultra-low volume (Ulv) sprayer used for the inactivation of indoor total bacteria

Yun Hee Choi, Da An Huh, Ju Yeon Lee, Ji Yoon Choi, Kyong Whan Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Physical and chemical cleaning for the removal of indoor microorganisms, which can cause allergic reactions and respiratory diseases, is labor-intensive and time-consuming. An ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer, a newly introduced device to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms, allows the disinfectant particles to reach hard-to-reach spaces indoors and is more cost-effective than the existing methods. However, few studies have been conducted to verify the efficiency of the ULV sprayer. Here, we verified the disinfection efficiency of the ULV sprayer for inactivating total bacteria present on indoor surfaces, considering the factors affecting bacteria inactivation, and presented the optimal ULV sprayer usage conditions to achieve the highest disinfection efficiency depending on room size. The total bacteria removal efficiency was high (range: 0.56–2.46 log10 reductions), including hard-to-reach spaces. A response surface model was developed to identify the individual and interactive effects of the disinfectant concentration, spray amount, and room size on total bacteria disinfection efficiency. These three variables had interactive effects on the total bacteria disinfection efficiency. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial model, with high coefficients of determination (R2) for all models (R2 >0.82). The optimum conditions were a spray amount of 3.08–6.40 L in 160 m3, 3.78–7.22 L in 230 m3, and 5.68–8 L in 300 m3 surface area when using dilution rates of 100 times. These conditions predicted a bacterial disinfection efficiency of >1.10 log10 reductions (92%) on all surfaces. Our results clearly indicate that the ULV sprayer effectively inactivates total bacteria present on indoor surfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3713
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Bacteria inactivation
  • Indoor disinfection
  • Response surface methodology
  • Total bacteria
  • ULV sprayer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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