Virtual object sizes for efficient and convenient mid-air manipulation

Myoung Gon Kim, Ji Seok Ryu, Jaemin Son, Jung Hyun Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


It has been taken for granted that the sizes of virtual objects affect the efficiency and convenience of mid-air manipulation in immersive virtual environments. If a virtual object is too small or too large, for example, manipulating it becomes a difficult task. Nevertheless, the virtual object sizes that are optimal and convenient have rarely been studied. In this paper, we select a virtual object with many distinct geometric features and conduct user studies via docking tasks. Through the user studies, the optimal and convenient sizes for mid-air manipulation are estimated. In order to verify the results, a proxy-based manipulation method is designed and implemented, where the proxy is created with the estimated optimal size. The test based on the method shows that the optimal-size proxy enables users to manipulate efficiently virtual objects and the estimated range of convenient sizes is also preferred by the users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3463-3474
Number of pages12
JournalVisual Computer
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and ICT, Korea, under the ICT Creative Consilience Program (IITP-2022-2020-0-01819), ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) Support Program (IITP-2022-2020-0-01460) and the grant No. 2020-0-00861, which are all supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & Communications Technology Planning & Evaluation).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Human–computer interaction
  • Mid-air manipulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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