Background and aims: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of multiple risk factors including central obesity that may lead to cardiac damage and cardiovascular events. We investigated whether visceral obesity induces cardiac structural and functional remodeling independently from central obesity and other risk factors in subjects with suspected MetS. Methods and results: We studied 229 participants with suspected MetS. Visceral fat area (VFA) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Left ventricular (LV) mass index, early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus (e′), and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) were measured by echocardiography. Subjects were categorized into high and low VFA group (VFA h and VFA l ). MetS was more prevalent in the VFA h than in the VFA l (p = 0.004). The VFA h had a higher waist circumference (WC) than the VFA l (p < 0.001). LV mass index was higher, but e’ and GLS were lower in the VFA h than in VFA l (all p < 0.05). VFA was well correlated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and adiponectin (all p < 0.05). VFA was correlated to LV mass index, e’ and GLS (all p < 0.05) and was independently associated with GLS after adjustment for other risk factors, including WC (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Visceral obesity assessed by VFA was well correlated with parameters of MetS. Visceral obesity, but not central obesity measured by WC, was independently associated with structural and functional cardiac remodeling in subjects with suspected MetS. It suggests that visceral obesity should be considered as an important risk factor for cardiac damage in dysmetabolic subjects. Trial registration: NCT02077530 (date of registration: November 1, 2013).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Seoul Metropolitan Government .
© 2019 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University
- Cardiovascular disease
- Metabolic syndrome
- Visceral fat
- Visceral obesity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine