Visualization of Sodium Metal Anodes via Operando X-Ray and Optical Microscopy: Controlling the Morphological Evolution of Sodium Metal Plating

Jeesoo Seok, Jae Hwan Hyun, Aihua Jin, Ji Hyun Um, Héctor D. Abruña, Seung Ho Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Because of the abundance and cost effectiveness of sodium, rechargeable sodium metal batteries have been widely studied to replace current lithium-ion batteries. However, there are some critical unresolved issues including the high reactivity of sodium, an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), and sodium dendrite formation. While several studies have been conducted to understand sodium plating/stripping processes, only a very limited number of studies have been carried out under operando conditions. We have employed operando X-ray and optical imaging techniques to understand the mechanistic behavior of Na metal plating. The morphology of sodium metal plated on a copper electrode depends strongly on the salts and solvents used in the electrolyte. The addition of a fluorine-containing additive to a carbonate-based electrolyte, NaClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC):fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), results in uniform sodium plating processes and much more stable cycling performance, compared to NaClO4 in PC, because of the formation of a stable SEI containing NaF. A NaF layer, on top of the sodium metal, leads to a much more uniform deposition of sodium and greatly enhanced cyclability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10438-10446
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 2

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
S.-H.Y. acknowledges the support by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2020R1C1C1012308) and by Technology Development Program to Solve Climate Changes through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2021M1A2A2038137). J.H.U. acknowledges the support provided by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2021R1I1A1A01044891).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society

Keywords

  • X-ray microscopy
  • dendrite
  • fluoroethylene carbonate
  • operando imaging
  • optical microscopy
  • sodium metal batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science

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