VO 2 /WO 3 -Based Hybrid Smart Windows with Thermochromic and Electrochromic Properties

Sang Jin Lee, Dong Soo Choi, So Hee Kang, Woo Seok Yang, Sahn Nahm, Seung Ho Han, Taeyoung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


The integration of electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) systems is important for realizingmultifunctional smart windows, which can adaptively control light transmittance and solar energy in response to diverse external stimuli. In this study, we developed an all-solid-state multifunctional smart window, in which tungsten oxide (WO 3 )-based EC and vanadium oxide (VO 2 )-based TC cells were integrated into a single device. In hybrid smart windows, the WO 3 -based EC layer modulates optical transmission in response to electrical voltage, while the VO 2 -based TC layer regulates solar energy transmission responding to the surrounding temperature. Therefore, such windows can control optical transmission and solar energy transmission in response to an electric stimulus and temperature change simultaneously or independently, allowing for a selective modulation of light in the visible and near-infrared regions. We demonstrated the viability of the proposed integrated smart window system by varying its optical transmission in four different optical states depending on its EC reaction and TC behavior. The concept for the integration of EC and TC cells into a single device can pave the way for next-generation multifunctional smart window systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7111-7117
Number of pages7
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Chemical Society.


  • Electrochromic material
  • Hybrid
  • Optical transmittance
  • Smart window applications
  • Thermochromic material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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