VoltageIDS: Low-level communication characteristics for automotive intrusion detection system

Wonsuk Choi, Kyungho Joo, Hyo Jin Jo, Moon Chan Park, Dong Hoon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

213 Citations (Scopus)


The proliferation of computerized functions aimed at enhancing drivers' safety and convenience has increased the number of vehicular attack surfaces accordingly. The fundamental vulnerability is caused by the fact that the controller area network protocol, a de facto standard for in-vehicle networks, does not support message origin authentication. Several methods to resolve this problem have been suggested. However, most of them require modification of the CAN protocol and have their own vulnerabilities. In this paper, we focus on securing in-vehicle CAN networks, proposing a novel automotive intrusion detection system (so-called VoltageIDS). The system leverages the inimitable characteristics of an electrical CAN signal as a fingerprint of the electronic control units. The noteworthy contributions are that VoltageIDS does not require any modification of the current system and has been validated on actual vehicles while driving on the road. VoltageIDS is also the first automotive intrusion detection system capable of distinguishing between errors and the bus-off attack. Our experimental results on a CAN bus prototype and on real vehicles show that VoltageIDS detects intrusions in the in-vehicle CAN network. Moreover, we evaluate VoltageIDS while a vehicle is moving.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2114-2129
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received September 27, 2017; revised January 10, 2018; accepted February 12, 2018. Date of publication March 5, 2018; date of current version April 16, 2018. This work was supported by the Samsung Research Funding and the Incubation Center for Future Technology under Project SRFC-TB1403-51. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Dr. Issa Traore. (Corresponding author: Dong Hoon Lee.) W. Choi, K. Joo, M. C. Park, and D. H. Lee are with the Graduate School of Information Security, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea (e-mail: wonsuk85.choi@gmail.com; wnrudgh16@korea.ac.kr; rudrnrwlska@naver.com; donghlee@korea.ac.kr).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2005-2012 IEEE.


  • Automotive IDS
  • Controller area network
  • Electronic control unit
  • Fingerprinting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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