Wavelength discrimination (WLD) TOF-PET detector with DOI information

Muhammad Nasir Ullah, Eva Pratiwi, Jin Ho Park, Kisung Lee, Hojong Choi, Jung Yeol Yeom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding can contribute to improving spatial resolution uniformity and sensitivity in positron-emission-tomography (PET) scanners. In addition, time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners with DOI encoding have received considerable interest because of their potential for improving the spatial resolution, sensitivity, and image quality of the overall system. In this study, a new DOI detector configuration utilizing scintillators' emission wavelength is proposed, and experimental results on the energy, timing, and DOI performance of the detector are provided. The DOI information from the proposed phoswich-type detector can be acquired at the detector level without complex signal processing by utilizing a single optical filter with customized optical properties. For this, we used either a short pass filter (SPF) or a long pass filter (LPF) that allows light photons of a specific wavelength to pass. The two-layered phoswich detector was configured with two scintillators with different photon-emission spectra. In this study, we used Ce:GAGG (3 mm × 3 mm × 10 mm) and LYSO:Ce (3 mm × 3 mm × 10 mm) as the top and bottom layer scintillators, respectively. A digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) was used as the photosensor and for data acquisition. The phoswich detector was placed in the center of two dSiPM pixels, where one of the dSiPM pixels was covered with the optical filter, and the light guide was placed on the other pixel. The detector was tested for energy, timing, and DOI encoding performance. When an SPF was used, the energy resolutions of 16.2% and 11.8% were achieved for the Ce:GAGG (top layer) and LYSO:Ce (bottom layer) respectively without correcting for saturation effect. With a small (3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm) LYSO crystal as the reference detector, CRTs (coincidence-resolving times) of 338 ps and 244 ps were recorded for the top and bottom layers respectively. The detector configuration also provides an excellent DOI-separation figure-of-merit (FoM) value of 1.9. In the case of LPF, the energy resolutions of 12.0% and 12.9% were achieved for the Ce:GAGG (top layer) and LYSO:Ce (bottom layer), respectively. CRTs (coincidence resolving times) of 314 ps and 263 ps were recorded for the top and bottom layers, respectively. The DOI-separation FoM value of 1.5 was achieved in this setup. Results show that the proposed method can provide excellent discrete DOI positioning accuracy without compromising the timing performance of the detector.

Original languageEnglish
Article number055003
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


  • depth of interaction
  • emission wavelength
  • optical filter
  • phoswich detector
  • time-of-flight positron emission tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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