What's your protocol: Vulnerabilities and security threats related to Z-Wave protocol

Kyounggon Kim, Kiyoon Cho, Jihwan Lim, Young Ho Jung, Min Seok Sung, Seong Beom Kim, Huy Kang Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


With the evolution of state-of-the-art applications and paradigms, the world is progressing toward smart cities. Smart homes are an important aspect of smart cities, wherein various mobile computing and network technologies are used. However, they are also susceptible to security threats that can cause serious issues related to privacy and safety. Z-Wave is a wireless technology primarily used in smart homes; however, its protocol has not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we examined threat modeling for the Z-Wave protocol to determine the security issues and suggested attack scenarios in which we gained full control over the commercial products that implement Z-Wave. We analyzed the level 2 data flow diagram of actual products. The experimental results revealed that the major products that implement Z-Wave have several vulnerabilities. A video demonstrating our experimental result can be found at https://youtu.be/sM-NlJexDPU.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101211
JournalPervasive and Mobile Computing
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper is funded by Korea Information Technology Research Institute (KITRI) . This work is also supported by Institute of Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2018-0-00232 , Cloud-based IoT Threat Autonomic Analysis and Response Technology).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.


  • IoT
  • Smart city
  • Smart home
  • Threat modeling
  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Z-Wave

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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