When verbal metaphors become more persuasive: the interplay between goal orientation of ad claims and metaphor

Hongmin Ahn, Mark Yi Cheon Yim, Yongjun Sung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study suggests that the goal orientation of metaphoric claims impacts the effects of metaphors in ads. Drawing on regulatory focus and information processing theories, we tested the moderating role of the regulatory focus of ad messages on the persuasiveness of their metaphors. In Experiment 1, we found that promotion-focused (vs. prevention-focused) verbal messages in ads were more favorable when messages were metaphoric (vs. literal), whereas prevention-focused (vs. promotion-focused) messages were more favored in literal (vs. metaphoric) claims. Experiment 2 further demonstrated that processing fluency functions as a mediating factor that elucidates the relationship found in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 also tested the generalizability of the Experiment 1 findings by varying the degree of artful deviation in the metaphoric claims. The results across both experiments suggest that when metaphoric claims highlight an approach to a desired outcome (i.e. promotion focus), the persuasiveness of metaphors in ads is enhanced, while when the avoidance of an undesired outcome (i.e. prevention focus) is emphasized, literal claims rather than metaphoric claims are more persuasive.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)541-562
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Advertising
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Advertising Association.


  • Verbal metaphor
  • experiment
  • information processing
  • regulatory focus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication
  • Marketing


Dive into the research topics of 'When verbal metaphors become more persuasive: the interplay between goal orientation of ad claims and metaphor'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this