The lysosomal destabilization that precedes mitochondrial apoptotic changes is an important step in cell death, particularly in oxidative cell death. This study describes the novel pharmacological effects of zaprinast, a cGMP-elevating phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on the inhibition of oxidative cell death in astrocyte cultures. H2O2-induced oxidative cytotoxicity was measured grossly by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and was found to be associated with lysosomal acridine orange relocation, lysosomal cathepsin D release into cytosol, and reduced mitochondrial potentials. Moreover, zaprinast (100 μM) inhibited all of these cytotoxic phenomena. In addition, H2O2-induced LDH release was not inhibited by 8-pCPT-cGMP, and the inhibition of this release by zaprinast was unaffected by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP, a protein kinase G inhibitor. Zaprinast was found to inhibit sphingosine-induced lysosomal acridine orange relocation and the induced decrease in mitochondrial potential, but zaprinast had no effect on rotenone-induced mitochondrial collapse, which was not associated with lysosomal destabilization. However, zaprinast did not inhibit the cellular increase of reactive oxygen species induced by H2O2, which suggests that its protective mechanism differs from that of desferrioxamine, which does inhibit such cellular increase of oxygen free radicals. We suggest that the novel protective effect of zaprinast on H2O2-induced oxidative cell death is primarily associated with its inhibition of lysosomal destabilization.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a Korea University Grant to SHC.
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Lysosomal stability
- Mitochondrial potential
- Oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas