Zero-Shot Photovoltaic Power Forecasting Scheme Based on a Deep Learning Model and Correlation Coefficient

Sungwoo Park, Dongjun Kim, Jaeuk Moon, Eenjun Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Accurate photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting is essential for the stable and reliable operation of PV power generation systems. Recently, various deep learning- (DL-) based forecasting models have been proposed for accurate forecasting, but newly built systems cannot benefit from them due to the absence of PV power data. Although zero-shot methods based on single site can be used for PV power forecasting, they suffer from performance degradation problems when the characteristics of the source data and target data are different. To address this issue, we propose a novel zero-shot PV power forecasting scheme that leverages historical data from multiple PV generation systems at different sites. The proposed scheme constructs an individual forecasting model using historical data from each PV generation system. Then, two correlation coefficients are calculated for each forecasting model: one based on the correlation between the input variables of the source data and target data and the other on the correlation between the input variables and output variables of the source data. Lastly, the final forecasting value is calculated as a weighted sum of the predicted values of the constructed forecasting models for the input variables of the target data. In the extensive experiments for diverse DL models for forecasting, correlation coefficient types for weights, and data time intervals, the combination of recurrent neural network, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and solar-noon time yielded the best prediction performance, with an improvement of up to 34.47% in mean absolute error and up to 15.94% in root mean square error compared to the best single-site zero-shot prediction. In addition, in experiments on PV power data from 9 cities in Korea using this combination, the proposed scheme achieved the best predictive performance in almost all cases and the second-best performance with a very narrow margin only in a few cases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9936542
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Sungwoo Park et al.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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